非谓语动词是什么,非谓语动词,做定语

 生活杂谈     |      2020-01-16 17:17
非谓语动词,做定语
什么是非谓语动词?
说白了就是动词在句子中不做谓语,然后变成三种形式V+ing(动名词和现在分词),V+ed(过去分词),TO+V(动词不定式),分别在句子中做主语、宾语等名词性成分,做定语等形容词性成分,状语等副词性成分。
其中V+ing表示动作主动,或者和主句谓语动词相比,处于进行状态;V+ed表示动作被动,或者和主句谓语动词相比,处于完成状态;to+V,表示特定目的,或者和主句谓语动词相比,是将来状态。
?回顾Day2动词的时态
106
106.It used to be so straightforward. A team of researchers working together in the laboratory would submit the results of their research to a journal. A journal editor would then remove the authors’ names and affiliations from the paper and send it to their peers for review. (2008, text 2, para. 1)
[译文]过去是如此简单。在实验室中合作的研究团队将把他们的研究结果提交给杂志。然后,期刊编辑将从论文中删除作者的姓名和背景,并将其发送给同行审查。
[分析]非谓的三种情况都能做定语,working可以还原成定语从句 who work together in the laboratory.
107
107. But a comparative study of linguistic traits published online today supplies a reality check. Russell Gray at the University of Auckland and his colleagues consider the evolution of grammars in the light of two previous attempts to find universality in language.(2012, translation, para. 4)
[译文]但是今天在线发表的语言特征的比较研究提供了真实性检验。奥克兰大学的罗素·格雷和他的同事在两次从语言的通用性中的尝试的基础上,思考语法的演变。
[分析]published online today还原成定语从句 which are published online today, 省略连接词和助动词。
108
108. Permission to run a nuclear plant is a public trust. Entergy runs 11 other reactors in the United States, including Pilgrim Nuclear station in Plymouth. Pledging to run Pilgrim safely, the company has applied for federal permission to keep it open for another 20 years. (2012, text 2, para. 6)
[译文]运行核电厂的许可是公众信任。 Entergy在美国运行11个其它反应堆,包括在普利茅斯的“朝圣”核电站。公司已申请联邦批准继续运营20年,并承诺安全地运行朝圣者核电厂。
[分析]to run a nuclear plant修饰permission,有特定和未来的意思;请注意这句话为什么不好还原成定语从句,permission和run这个动词之间没有主谓关系;另外如果把permission去掉,这句话通不通?
109
109. For Lloyd Nickson, a 54-year-old Darwin resident suffering from lung cancer, the NT Rights of Terminally Ill law means he can get on with living without the haunting fear of his suffering: a terrifying death from his breathing condition. “I’m not afraid of dying from a spiritual point of view, but what I was afraid of was how I’d go, because I’ve watched people die in the hospital fighting for oxygen and clawing at their masks,” he says.(1997, text 1, para. 3)
[译文]对于一个54岁患肺癌的达尔文居民劳埃德·尼克森来说,这个法律(我把前面的专有名词都省略了)意味着他可以继续活下去,没有对痛苦的恐惧:呼吸情况下的令人恐惧的死去。他说,“从精神层面来看,我不怕死,但我害怕的是死亡的方式,因为我看着人们医院里,苦苦挣扎呼吸氧气和乱抓他们的氧气面罩的死去”。 
[分析]这里的非谓fighting和clawing都可以还原成定语从句,另外注意dying不是和from一起的搭配。另外这句话中所有的ing形式,我们来做个一一分析。
110
110. Why do so many Americans distrust what they read in their newspapers? The American Society of Newspaper Editors is trying to answer this painful question. The organization is deep into a long self-analysis known as the journalism credibility project.
Sad to say, this project has turned out to be mostly low-level findings about factual errors and spelling and grammar mistakes, combined with lots of head-scratching puzzlement about what in the world those readers really want.(2001, text 3, para. 1)
[译文]为什么这么多美国人不相信他们在报纸上看到什么?美国报业编辑社正试图回答这个痛苦的问题。该组织深入一个长期的自我分析运动,被称为新闻信任项目。
可悲的是,这个项目结果成为是大多关于事实错误,和拼写和语法错误等低级别的调查结果,伴随了许多令人头疼的谜题:这些读者真正想要什么?
[分析]combined with可以还原成which are combined with---, 但是我们在讲非限制定语从句说过,其实可以等同于状语从句的功能。在这句中,combined with整个成分可以放在句首,也是种伴随的状语,也可以还原成状语甚至状语从句。请把combined去掉,或者写成as it is combined with---
  
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