实义动词是什么,实义动词的基本用法

 生活杂谈     |      2020-01-18 16:13
     实义动词,是从搭配角度对动词进行分类后的两大种类之一,与之并列的概念是辅助动词。实义动词,可以简单地理解为,在句中可以独立用作谓语的动词。根据不同的搭配方法,实义动词可以分为以下三种:及物动词、不及物动词和连系动词。这三种实义动词的基本用法如下所示:

实义动词
1. 及物动词 + 名词功能:
     vt. + n.
Ann drinks tea.(名词)
Ann drinks some black tea.(名词词组)
Ann likes music.(名词)
Ann likes listening to music.(动名词短语)
Ann likes to dance.(动词不定式)
Ann likes dancing.(动名词)
Ann sees George.(名词)
Ann sees him.(人称代词的宾格形式)
Ann sees that George drives away.(名词性从句:宾语从句)
2. 不及物动词 + (介词 + 名词功能):
     vi. + (prep.+ n.)
Ann leaves.
Ann leaves alone.
Ann leaves in silence.
Ann thinks of schooldays.(名词)
Ann thinks of her teens.(名词词组)
Ann thinks of him.(人称代词的宾格形式)
Ann thinks of doing homework with him.(动名词短语)
Ann thinks of that they walked together after school.(名词性从句:宾语从句)
3. 连系动词 + 名词功能/形容词功能:
     v-link + n./adj.
Ann is a manager.(名词词组)
Ann is tall.(形容词)
Her job is typing.(动名词)
Her job is typing on the computer.(动名词短语)
Ann gets slimmer.(形容词的比较级形式)
Ann looks very beautiful.(形容词词组)
Ann looks amazed.(过去分词)
Ann looks amazed by the beautiful scene.(过去分词短语)
Ann sounds pleasing.(现在分词)
Ann sounds quite pleasing to the ears.(现在分词短语)
Ann feels happy.(形容词)
Ann feels to be full of strength.(动词不定式短语)
Ann feels as if she is the centre of the world.(名词性从句:表语从句)
        值得注意的是,由于连系动词之后必须有表语,因此在传统的语法教学中,常被认为是不能独立用作谓语的动词,所以也就不被划分在实义动词之内。然而,从构成各种句式的角度来看,连系动词与其它两种动词(即及物动词和不及物动词)的用法基本上是一致的。而且,及物动词之后也必须要有宾语才算结构完整,这一点与连系动词之后必须跟上表语,是多么的相似。因此,在这里,我们把连系动词划分在了实义动词之内,并且可以把它看成是一种特殊的实义动词。