until是什么意思,until的用法

 生活杂谈     |      2020-01-18 17:27
上一期讲了对“suspect”一词的精准理解,同学们的反响很好(表示纷纷中招),所以今天继续再给大家讲个看似简单、实则有坑的“易错词”。
它是——“until”
没错,就是这个你可能初中就“认识”的词,大家都知道它是“直到”的意思,那这个翻译到底是否准确呢?我们来测试一下!
”African American drama has, until recently, been rooted in the mimetic tradition of modern American naturalism.“
 揭晓答案:B
所以“直到”这个词是想表达在某一时间点“之前”还是“之后”?
(Forget the translation! Let’s look at the Merriam-Webster-Dictionary.)
1)used as a function word to indicate continuance (as of an action or condition) to a specified time  
2)before
Merriam-Webster-Dictionary
第一个释义告诉我们,until只是个功能性的词(没有实际含义),表示某个动作在某时间点“之前”一直持续发生着。
第二个释义告诉我们,until就等价与before。
因此,无论是哪个释义,其实都告诉我们,until想表达的是在某个时间点“之前”。而且GRE考试中(无论是填空还是阅读)这个词的出现都暗含了时间前后的对比。
好了,现在扶一下你跌下来的眼镜,我们来看一道GRE阅读的机经原题。
这是一道易错题,也是一道晨晨老师被问了千百遍的题…
文章:
A divide between aesthetic and technical considerations has played a crucial role in mapmaking and cartographic scholarship. Since nineteenth century cartographers, for instance,understood themselves as technicians who did not care about visual effects,while others saw themselves as landscape painters. That dichotomy structured the discipline of the history of cartography. Until the 1980s, in what Blakemore and Harley called “the Old is Beautiful Paradigm,” scholars largely focused on maps made before 1800, marveling at their beauty and sometimes regretting the decline of the pre-technical age.
题目:
It can be inferred from the passage that, beginning in the 1980s, historians of cartography
A.placed greater emphasis on the beauty of maps made after 1800
B.expanded their range of study to include more material created after 1800
C.grew more sensitive to the way mapmakers prior to 1800 conceived of their work
D.came to see the visual details of maps as aesthetic objects rather than practical cartographic aids
E.reduced the attention they paid to the technical aspects of mapmaking
正确答案:B
说一下正确的解题过程~
通过题干中的“1980s”,我们可以对应到文中的“Until the 1980s, in what Blakemore and Harley called “the Old is Beautiful Paradigm,” scholars largely focused on maps made before 1800, marveling at their beauty and sometimes regretting the decline of the pre-technical age.” 所以很多同学看到这道题后都自信满满的选了C!
但是注意!题干问的是beginning in the 1980s,而文章说的是Until the 1980s即 before 1980s,所以记得把文章取反后再来辨析选项哦!
文章中说1980s之前人们关注的是1800之前的作品;因此我们可以推出,1980s之后人们关注的应该是1800之后的作品。因此答案是B。(A选项说的也是1800之后,但是文中说1800之前的作品才是beauty,因此我们知道1800之后的作品应该是technical,因此A也是错误选项。)
总结一下!同学们之后再看到until,就看成是“before”就好啦!(以及看出有个时间前后对比的逻辑哦!)